Similarly, if a young man thinks of an ideal young woman and dreams about her, such a picture is very much of a fact in the psychological space, though such an ideal woman may not exist at all as a physical reality. This approach tends to view personality as a growing, developing and unfolding process and it can never be completely developed. Each picture depicts two persons, one of them facing a frustrating situation. Psychology Essays - perspective on personality Free human personality Essays and Papers - 123helpme Personality of psychology paper Anson Wong - Academiaedu Psychology Essays - Developmental Psychology Personality psychology Essays and Research Papers Short Essay About Personality Psychology Essay Writing Guide for Psychology Students Simply Personality Psychology - GCSE … The responses are analysed for indications of one’s personality. It is a dynamic theory unlike the S-R. theories. 275 words / page; Font: 12 point Arial/Times New Roman; … Personality measurement, as a practice, has developed only during the past six decades though other psychological variables such as intelligence and aptitude were being measured even earlier. . Rosenzweig developed an adult form and a children’s form of this test. Human personality should always be praised and no one should ever put anyone down for having a different personality. Lewin who introduced the field theoretical approach in psychology, differed from all the other theorists radically in his views on personality. These types of laws assume that people will do wrong and that their human personality is wrong. Skinner, with whose work on operant conditioning the reader is very familiar, tried to relate observable behaviour to observable environmental events. A pessimist on the other hand is a “prophet of doom”. It is very useful when time is limited and a large number of people have to be assessed or when the personality score is only one of the many criteria to be taken into account. Their use also requires a lot of skill and experience. According to Mischel, some such important variables are the perceptions or how the person perceives the environment (almost phenomenological) the competence of the person in terms of his ability to think and person’s expectations of what the person expects would follow a particular action of his (Rotter expectations), the values, ideas and goals of the person, valences of the goals or attractiveness of the outcomes and findings, and self-regulation or planning the standards which the person sets for himself to attain a goal or objective. Essay # 2. A personality questionnaire or inventory must possess certain properties before it can be considered useful. The behaviouristic approach basically holds the view that psychology should do away with concepts like mind, self, consciousness, etc. Need for the Concept of Personality: Essay # 3. Damages to personality are often cured by proper treatment. It is assumed that while being engaged in the above activities a person reveals one’s constant and stable styles of behaviour and also one’s needs. This is a ‘spread effect’ and is known as halo error. Observations . That being said, Freud linked everything with sex. Personality is the way that a person behaves, in short, the outcome of the human behavior. Some people refer to the physical appearance like height, weight, colour, body built, dress, voice, etc. The individual has to choose whichever he feels would be the best and true response. 9. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Personality’ especially written for school and college students. Fortunately, on this question also, one can find a considerable amount of agreement among psychologists. However, even though they are influenced by cultural, social and economic factors they are easy and useful instruments. In conclusion, human personality is the essential character of a human being. Rating procedures are very extensively employed but there are some common errors which may affect ratings. According to this view, personality is a totality and cannot be divided into units. Thus one may see the difference between an “optimist” and a “pessimist”. The Thematic Apperception Test developed by him to assess personality on the basis of his theory is one of the most widely used tools of measurement and research in psychology. The relationship between human and nature can be described in different ways; it can be beautiful, cruel or at times puzzling. The major psychodynamic explanation was that of Freud as espoused in his psychoanalytic theory. However, psychologists have been very sharply divided on this issue, and whether a particular psychologist takes a structural view or a functional view influences his research in the field of personality. Trying to do this is trying to change one’s human personality. Indeed, in scientific publishing a review of the learner, and learning there is no accurate information on writing reports. Content Guidelines 2. Anything from the way a person eats a meal, talks, laughs, drives a car, or enters a classroom and takes a seat affects this unique personality. Two of the prominent psychologists associated with this approach are Kurt Lewin & Goldstein. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. In view of this certain psychologists, while trying to maintain the broad frame of the behavioural approach, attempted to integrate them with certain cognitive concepts. But the problem involved here is that this is a time-consuming procedure. However, … For example, in an interview situation, the interviewers observe the behaviour of a person and rate his personality on a scale ranging from a low to high value. This is very important for parents, teachers and others who are vested with the responsibility of shaping the personalities of young people. Some psychologists have, therefore, concerned themselves with the identification of such basic characteristics of personality, describing and measuring them. 2. Approx. This provides concrete yard-sticks and prevents impressionistic variations among /raters. Personality is defined as the characteristic sets of behaviors, cognitions, and emotional patterns that evolve from biological and environmental factors. Personality In fact, this is the most characteristic function of personality. This error is called the error of central tendency. Some of these cards are to be used with males and females and some with children. According to this view the term ‘personality’ is nothing but the totality of all the learnt behavioural patterns in an individual. Describe Your Personality (Essay Sample) August 31, 2017 by admin Essay Samples, Free Essay Samples. Croake (1975) argued the human being is a, learned this much about myself or my career, had I not taken this course. These attributes are essential not only for personality questionnaires or inventories but for all tools of psychological measurement. The problem is relatively easy in the case of intelligence tests and also aptitude tests. The only just laws are the ones that punish those that actually degrade someone’s human personality. On other occasions, an unstructured questionnaire is preferred. The phenomenological approach has also come in for some criticism. Category: Essays and Paragraphs On July 18, 2019 By Ananda. It is the total and overall description of a person. Today, most of the psychologists agree that a personality of the individual is not just a description of different qualities or characteristics. But if situational variables are more dominant, the normal behaviour is disrupted. Thus, objectivity, reliability and validity constitute the three essential attributes of personality questionnaires or inventories. Of course, there is the problem of behaviour exhibited by people in certain specific situations, differing from their general pattern. Here, instead of the total personality, a number of attributes or qualities are individually rated and these individual ratings are summed up. These types are also sometimes referred to as closed or open. The trait, type, factorial and dimensional approaches have primarily assumed a structural approach and have attempted to identify the basic units or types of personality structure. 2 The responses of the subject are noted. The psychologists who have been primarily concerned with studying the structure of personality have devoted their efforts in understanding, describing and measuring these various units of personality. The trait approach and type approach belong to this category. A variation of questionnaires is what is known as a situational test. Personality, according to this approach, is descriptive rather than explanatory, and static rather than dynamic. Rosenzweig was interested in studying differences in people’s reactions to frustration and measuring the same. Research in these areas brought to light an important point, namely, that personality is not just a static fact. It consists of 30 cards, each representing pictorially and rather vaguely, a few people in interaction. Psychological researches even today are not free from the controversy between these two views, the dynamic view, on the one hand and the static descriptive view, on the other. Of course, these approaches have been more recent in origin, and have constantly been resisting all attempts to reduce behaviour to physiological characteristics or even to psychological units like traits. 3. Examples of laws like this would be: wearing a seat belt, the possession of guns, the right to abortion, and the ability to buy alcohol on Sundays. We are familiar with the intimate relationship between psychology and the other social sciences like anthropology and sociology. In some situations, one person is directly associated with the frustration. These psychologists established through their research the existence of an authoritarian personality syndrome. The type approach, looked for ‘broad, typical and characteristic patterns of behaviour to classify people.’. The process of ‘self- development’ is also guided by the evaluation of others. Both ratings and questionnaires measure personality on the basis of either observations by the rater or by the subject’s response. They do not postulate any basic units or factors of personality. On the other hand, the provision of models may bias the rater to fit the rating to some particular model. Further, it has also been criticised as being based purely on the subjective views of individual psychologists. It may, therefore, be seen that personality measurement has become a very skilled and sophisticated operation. In many instances, the term personality is used in an evaluative sense. In such instances psychologists employ indirect measures and what are more popularly known as projective tests. Bandura calls the latter self-efficacy. Though Rotter, Bandura and others have incorporated terms like ‘expectancy’ these are also treated as “conditioned implicit responses” rather than enduring dispositions. Implications of the Psychology of Personality: Essay on the Need for the Concept of Personality, Essay on the Personality as a Descriptive Concept, Essay on the Psychodynamic Approach to Personality, Essay on the Wholistic and Organismic Approaches to Personality, Essay on the Behavioural Approach to Personality, Essay on Kurt Lewin’s View on Personality, Essay on Kelly’s Concept of Personal Constructs, Essay on the Nature and Functions of Personality, Essay on the Implications of the Psychology of Personality. This is called objectivity. The organismic approach emphasises that human behaviour is always purposive, futuristic-oriented, goal-directed and looks for clear meanings in the environment and it is this last characteristic that draws it close to the phenomenological approach. In India, B.N. Every person has a different personality and some personalities mesh better than others. In other situations the frustration may be of a different kind. This, of course, appears to be the most common trend. Thus learning theory-oriented psychologists have developed special skill training programmes which have been found to benefit unpopular school children become more popular and accepted. Anthropologists and psychologists have made significant contributions in this regard. Every human being is unique. These remarks are analysed and on the basis of that, the frustration tolerance is analysed. While remaining stable, it is always possible that ‘personality’ can change and grow. So far we have considered ratings and questionnaires as tools for measuring personality. This is called validity. Thus, what was at one time considered to be mysterious and impossible to measure has now been shown to be measurable with a reasonable degree of accuracy. An optimist is always hopeful, and believes that ultimately things will turn out alright. For example, when one describes a person as an honest person or a good person, one is passing a judgement on that person’s behaviour with reference to certain standards or norms of behaviour. do not occur independently and individually. Nevertheless, there is much to be improved and developed further in the field of personality testing and measurement. If this quality is not present we cannot depend on the measurements. or the form or outline. This classification is based on the predominance of certain functions in different personalities. In daily life the term personality is very freely used by people with different meanings. Sentence Completion Test: Another projective test widely employed is the Sentence Completion Test. In view of this, the term personality came to be used as one which explains behaviour rather than described behaviour. Further, it is not possible to make a distinction between behaviour and personality. Wholistic and Organismic Approaches to Personality: Essay # 7. Essentially it is a test of personality-structure measuring dimensions like intellectual control, emotionality, etc. In addition to these, activities like finger painting and free drawing have also been employed for personality measurement. His theory has found wide acceptance among psychologists. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Psychology. In other cases, the questions may be given without alternative answers and the person can answer them in his or her own words, thus being able to answer more freely. A theory of personality which is content-oriented but nevertheless very much in disagreement with the views of the learning theorists is the theory advanced by H.A. While the points mentioned above, help us to understand the nature of personality, there is another aspect of the issue yet to be explained. 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