We want all our leaders—from politicians to movie stars—to stir our souls a little, and we want the same thing from our managers. 10.4236/jep.2012.34040 The Human Side of Enterprise consists of 3 parts and is in total about 250 pages. The first part (pp.1-10) illustrates the basic rules for Harvard referencing, provides a sample text which uses Harvard referencing, and answers some frequently asked questions. Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, proposed his famous X-Y theory in his 1960 book 'The Human Side Of Enterprise… Customers were frustrated and angry trying to figure out what the fares really were, and travel agents, unable to cope or make sense of the confusion, were close to desperation. JIBTVA Compare those cases with the way Johns-Manville handled the asbestos catastrophe. He had openly implied that they were morons, and he had declared their jobs to be easy. level of work ethics and the challenges that are faced by women in the utilization of the educational Ralph Stayer of Johnsonville Sausage in Wisconsin is another CEO who, in the early 1980s, tried to empower and invigorate his workforce with large helpings of profit sharing and responsibility. Getting people to do what’s best—for customers, for the business, even for themselves—is often a struggle because it means getting people to understand and want to do what’s best, and that requires integrity, the willingness to empower others, courage, tenacity, and great teaching skills. He was still so deeply in love with his own control that he held onto it in ways that he was not even conscious of. Two research questions In the early 1970s, when the story took place, Cattabiani had just taken over the Westinghouse Steam Turbine Division in Philadelphia and faced serious problems. JCPT Managers are not responsible for other people’s happiness, we say. JST Forbes Magazine, 12 Nov. 2014.Web. MNSMS IJCCE Among other things, the division funded arm’s-length studies and practiced immediate total disclosure (by phone, fax, letter, news conference, videotape, live television, and printed warnings) of everything the company learned about the potential hazards and health risks of the product and made no disingenuous effort to put a procompany spin on the results. He’d won a labor victory, but his prize was a factory full of sullen, angry workers determined to file grievances on every tiny deviation from the contract he had made them sign. Rather than simply turn the contract down, however, as he would have done five years earlier, he presented it to his employees. McGregor, D. (1960) The Human side of enterprise… OJPsych Australian/Harvard Citation. 517 06/2005 Harvard Law School Cambridge, … All rights reserved. AM 6,387 Downloads 13,595 Views Citations, Estimation of Phosphorus Bioavailability in the Water Column of the Bronx River, New York, DOI: management should expand working facilities and capacity advancement programme to improve Great management is about character, not technique. The work they did was far from easy, as he’d discovered firsthand when he’d tried to do it himself, and he desperately needed their knowledge of equipment, products, and customers. From the day it was born, Rosenbluth Travel had the competitive advantage of imagination. In The Human Side of Enterprise McGregor was among the first scholars to emphasize influence as key to managerial leadership, commenting: “The power to influence others is not a function of the amount … Managers can be as thoughtless and selfish as any other human beings, but they can also be as idealistic and as noble. Great management requires leaders to learn some difficult lessons of their own. OJOG Heroism certainly isn’t a word we’re comfortable using in the same breath with the word self-interest, and there’s no escaping the fact that managers do what they do at least partially to serve themselves, even to make money, even to make a lot of money. As a Manville manager for more than 30 years, Bill Sells witnessed what he calls “one of the most colossal corporate blunders of the twentieth century.” This blunder was not the company’s manufacture and sale of asbestos. 10.4236/nr.2020.112004 OJMI OJML We may love and work hard for a manager who knows too little about computers or marketing but is a fine human being. It brought out the discussion on how best to treat the workforce to … ABC OJER After eight years with the company, Sells was promoted in 1968 to manage a troubled asbestos facility in Illinois, where it was his job to juggle responsibilities that sometimes seemed to conflict—keeping the plant profitable, keeping it productive, and keeping it safe. Some think integrity is the same thing as secretiveness or blind loyalty. WJM But Sells did put his insight into practice in the 1980s, when he headed the company’s fiberglass division. YM. 6,033 Downloads 9,209 Views Citations. In some cases, however, urging people toward shared responsibility and authority is like pulling teeth, and when it means repressing your own instinct to control, like pulling your own teeth. OJSST More important for Frey, workers began to make the connection between income and initiative, and today they carry out all the long-term planning and management of labor, materials, equipment, production runs, packing, and delivery. WSN Gradually over the course of several years, the struggle began to pay off. Union cooperation was the key to the kind of change that could save the division, and he was determined to change attitudes and begin treating the workforce with respect and honesty. Book: reprint in a different form (Roget's thesaurus of English words and phrases, 1987) Roget's thesarus of English … He calculated that people whose bonuses depended on profits were neither going to waste the company’s money on luxury hotels and cars nor sit around on their hands at work. WJCD JCC But he firmly refused to increase wages across the board beyond restoring the pay cut that had helped get the company back on its feet. SS On the theory that it was indecent to treat people like children who in private life were heads of families, civic leaders, and army reserve officers, he put hourly workers on monthly salaries, did away with time clocks and security checks, and let people on the factory floor set their own work goals, methods, and even work hours. He also began to study profit-sharing plans. One of the most striking things about entrepreneurs, for example, is their sometimes awkward resemblance to Romantic heroes—their isolation, the fact that they are perpetually swimming against the current, against the wishes of one or more of their constituencies, against convention, against criticism, against heavy odds. OJAPr OALib OJOTS SGRE For two weeks, in small groups and at larger team meetings (which Stayer did not attend), they studied the risks and challenges and developed plans to minimize the downside dangers. Union leaders had a reputation for intransigence, and several strikes had grown violent. Maslow, A. Harvard Business Publishing is an affiliate of Harvard Business School. gadgets and the work ethics was fairly effective. Frey was sure that he and his workforce would continue to be adversaries until they all shared a common interest in the company’s success. McGregor, D. (1960) The Human Side of Enterprise. Gradually, in the midst of open animosity, the change that Cattabiani wanted began to take place. The text deals with policies and practices in the management of human resources in business and industrial organization, examining them in the light of current social science knowledge about … Psychological Review 50 (4), pp. Think of the way Johnson & Johnson dealt with the Tylenol poisoning crisis or how Procter & Gamble withdrew Rely Tampons, a newly launched product, because of an unproved but potentially serious health risk. Afterward, he began to make regular visits to the shop floor, a thing none of his predecessors had ever done, and to banter and reason with the worst of his hecklers. He introduced greater work flexibility, instituted higher standards for quality and productivity, and when necessary, laid people off. Perhaps as a consequence, we’ve developed a tendency to downplay the importance of the human element in managing. It's fast and free! We know this is true because so many of us eventually get the chance to try. He wanted employees to see that the division was in trouble and that their very jobs depended on a new kind of management-labor relationship. Finally, we insist that they should be our friends, mentors, or guardians, perpetually alert to our best interests. JCDSA OJSTA The human side of organizations. Not all those stories ended happily, but all of them showed how extraordinarily difficult firstrate management can be. By the early 1970s, unfortunately, it was too late to save asbestos or its victims. For $50, he supplied poor Europeans with steamship tickets, assistance clearing the hurdles at Ellis Island, and transport to Philadelphia. JTST MR 5,803 Downloads 10,390 Views Citations, Water Quality, Contamination, and Wetlands in the Croton Watershed, New York, USA, Jeffrey M. McKenzie, Donald I. Siegel, Laura K. Lautz, Martin H. Otz, James Hassett, Ines Otz, DOI: McGregor, D. M. 1957. We’ve already noted that most of us demand something in a manager that is larger than life, and I suggest that in really great managers, we get it. WJNST On the other side, management saw labor as lazy and selfish, and it tended to treat workers with contempt. Centre, Resource, Leader, Women Capacity, JOURNAL NAME: The Human Side of Management ... nearly 90 years after the whole enterprise got off the ground, Hal Rosenbluth took over the business and reinvented it once again. Most of us spend the better part of our working lives convinced that we could do the boss’s job better than the boss. Which brings me to another observation about great managers, this one a little more extravagant. As it glides upward from acquirable skills to primal virtues, each item on the list grows less and less dispensable. I’m the one who is loyal.”. He met with union leaders, told them exactly what he was trying to accomplish, and swore he was not out to break their shop. OALibJ He wanted them to earn more money than they had ever earned before, but only on the condition that extra money would come from profits: workers would have to share that portion of the risk and shoulder more responsibility. They all showed something else as well—that management is a supremely human activity, a fact that explains why, among all the preposterous demands that we make on managers, character means more to us than education. The boss who accused Sells of disloyalty didn’t want to hear uncomfortable facts or opposing points of view. IJOHNS AID Even if the eventual rewards are great? JEAS Adams, Susan. OJGen five (5) faculties, administrative departments and units within the university. the work ethics for optimal efficiency. By continuing to collect production data, he stayed in charge of production. With a partner, Frey had purchased the company in 1984, and at first his relations with employees had been adversarial and hostile. ME were formulated and data were analyzed using percentage and mean score. Great management involves courage and tenacity. ACT MSCE OJSS OJEM The rewards for great managers are more subtle. Look closely at any company in trouble, and you’ll probably find that the problem is management. They went out on strike but eventually caved in when their war chest ran dry. JFCMV First published in 1960, "The Human Side of Enterprise" has become a worldwide management bible. To give the plan teeth, he declared that he would open the company’s books to union inspection and audit. [Douglas McGregor; Joel E Cutcher-Gershenfeld] -- A book on management. There were intricate rules for travel—strict ceilings on hotel expenses, calls home limited to a set number of minutes, and all the usual red tape about turning in receipts. OJAcct OJRM Frey is an interesting case of a great manager who has great flaws that somehow just don’t matter. Once when he raised objections, Sells was told by his boss, “Bill, you’re not loyal,” to which he replied, “No, no, you’ve got it wrong. I found it a well-written and easy to read book. APD OJU OJL The study adapted the descriptive survey research design. OJRD AD IJCNS He set up a profit-sharing plan, and, to make it work, he cut the size of the operating units to which it was tied and opened the company’s books to everyone on the payroll. ), Justice in the workplace: Approaching fairness in human resources … Of course, a few of us would be terrific managers. JHEPGC Graphene Add your e-mail address to receive free newsletters from SCIRP. According to Sells, the blunder that killed thousands of people and eliminated an industry was self-deception. ADR It is hard to read stories like this one and the one about Cattabiani’s protégé, William Peace, and not get a sense that these two men and a great many men and women like them, at least brush the edges of something genuinely gallant, however industrial, however small the scale. OJMH GSC TI The payoff came several years later, when Johnsonville was offered a huge new contract that Stayer didn’t believe the company was capable of handling. In industrial relations: Participative management …management theorist Douglas McGregor in The Human Side of Enterprise (1960). OJMetal JBNB “The 10 Skills Employers Most Want In 2015 Graduates.”Forbes. Gradually the anger faded and the mood shifted from despondency to resignation and even to some grudging understanding and actual interest in the prospects for a sale. The first modules examine teams, individuals, and networks in the context of: The … It means being responsible, of course, but it also means communicating clearly and consistently, being an honest broker, keeping promises, knowing oneself, and avoiding hidden agendas that hang other people out to dry. AASoci The Human Side of Enterprise In the book The Human Side of Enterprise, McGregor identified an approach of creating an environment within which employees are motivated via authoritative direction and control or integration and self-control, which he called theory X and theory Y… Management of Education Resource Centre and Capacity Development in Nigerian Universities, KEYWORDS: WJV Years later, when immigration slowed (and when the company was forced to give up one of its licenses—travel or banking), Rosenbluth Travel moved into the business of leisure travel. OJFD First Person: Tales of Management Courage and Tenacity. JDM Easy as it is to point out mediocre managers—and you can hardly swing a cat in the average workplace without hitting several—nearly everyone gets to see a few exemplary managers in the course of a career. OJOGas But Stayer was his own worst enemy. Now, people whose concept of the heroic is inextricably tied to burning buildings and reckless self-sacrifice may find this suggestion offensive. NM Managers will top every list. He decreed that learning new skills would entitle people to raises. JCT JAMP Managing is not a series of mechanical tasks but a set of human interactions. In the early 1980s, William Peace was the general manager of the Synthetic Fuels Division at Westinghouse, a relatively small unit that faced liquidation as a result of declining oil prices unless he could make it attractive enough to sell. CRCM has been cited by the following article: TITLE: Management of Education Resource Centre and Capacity … MC But with obvious dread, he persisted. IJAMSC JPEE MRC JBiSE In the course of seven years at this magazine, I was lucky enough to come in contact with a surprising number of great managers. IJNM ABCR The truth is, people often fail to embrace the opportunities they claim to want, and managers often fail to yield the authority they aim to delegate. Even if there are rewards? OJAS This is stressful work for managers, partly because it means serving two masters—one organizational, one moral—and partly because they’re not likely to get support for doing it, not even for doing it well. Of course, business integrity means accepting the business consequences of a company’s acts, but for great managers, it also means taking personal responsibility. But when Sells took over his own division, he opened himself to criticism and argument. OJApo OJPC Frey had no desire to carry all his company’s burdens by himself, so, like Ralph Stayer, he decided to share the responsibilities and rewards with his workforce. OJPathology Manville funded little medical research, made little effort to communicate what it already knew, and took little or no proactive responsibility for the damage asbestos might do. In 1980, when Ricardo Semler took over Semco, his family’s business in São Paulo, Brazil—five factories that manufactured, among other things, marinepumps, commercial dishwashers, and mixing equipment for everything from bubble gum to rocket fuel—productivity was low, new contracts were a rarity, and financial disaster loomed. The social side of fairness: Interpersonal and informational classes or organizational justice. Something about management looks so easy that we watch one anemic performance after another and never doubt that we could succeed where others repeatedly fail. Hal saw it all as a grand opportunity, partly because he saw that the solution lay in another recent innovation—computers. The presentations and their aftermath were a watershed. The only real difference was that now instead of telling them what he wanted, he was making them guess. People wept openly or stared dejectedly at the floor. No wonder most managers seem to underperform. TITLE: But by the time he shook their hands and wished them luck, he hoped and believed they had come to appreciate his motives if not his choice of sacrificial lambs. But just as clearly, most of us would not. JECTC AJPS And still not all of them do. FNS They wanted nothing to do with power and self-government even if it really did mean profit sharing on a generous scale, which they very much doubted was the case. OJMIP OJIC London and New York: Routledge. CS AiM They are subjects we know how to teach. 1960, The human side of enterprise / Douglas McGregor McGraw-Hill … To that end, he wanted them to understand where wages came from and to grasp the trade-offs between benefits and profits. In addition, we ask them to assume responsibility for organizational success, make a great deal of money, and share it generously. There is even a name for this capacity. Management is terrifically difficult. The results SN We generally call it the ability to motivate people, but that phrase is too bloodless to suggest the adrenaline that’s needed to build great companies. Semler swept this old world out the door. If a company’s vision and strategy are to differentiate its offerings and create competitive advantage, they must be original. But even doing it well enough is a much more honorable and arduous task than we commonly suppose. OJOPM Ignoring his fears, they accepted and successfully carried out the contract despite the problems it could—and did—add to their lives. JHRSS set up to develop potentials of individuals at a specified period. , a management professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the 1950s and 1960s, felt that there are two different perspectives, which he … The Human Side of Enterprise is the work that first presented Theory X and Theory Y. The workers wanted to confront the source of their problems. The meeting with the 15 innocent victims the next morning was funereal. WJCS Or rather, not even thanks, just no. Manville managers at every level were simply unwilling to acknowledge the evidence available in the 1940s, when so much of the damage was done, and their capacity for denial held steady through the following decades despite mounting evidence about old and newly identified hazards. OJS Frey himself soon realized that even if his cost-cutting measures had been necessary, his manner had been arrogant, high-handed, and shortsighted. one of the most popular formatting styles used in academic papers AJCM The management sciences—statistics, data analysis, productivity, financial controls, service delivery—are things we can almost take for granted these days. AJIBM skill acquisition and value oriented services delivery that had been vigorously pursued at the On the theory that he should not be sending people he didn’t trust around the world to represent his company, he eliminated expense accounting and simply gave people whatever they claimed to have spent. And he quickly tired of lying awake nights wondering if the company was going to survive. Great managers also bring forth other great managers. It closely resembles heroism. But they saw Cattabiani as the enemy. BLR Ask employees about their jobs, and they’ll complain about management. Sometimes it also requires managers to learn some difficult lessons of their own. IJMPCERO Perhaps, he says, some people take advantage of uncontrolled expense accounts or unlocked storage rooms—he would certainly prosecute anyone he found stealing—but his delegation of authority has been so radical and thorough (and effective) that he has no good way of finding out and no desire to know. OJBIPHY Barnard, Chester. He gave new responsibilities to his best people, with merit raises to match, and he found a factory manager who was good at coaxing people to study math and such techniques as statistical process control. New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall. OJDer Painful and lonely as the process was for Cattabiani, it gave him a human status that no manager had previously held. In fact, the strike had taught him that his contemptuous treatment of his workers had been a case of extremely poor judgment. In an effort to pare costs, he decided to eliminate a number of the division’s 130 jobs because he thought potential buyers would see them as inessential, and, under the circumstances, he had no choice but to lay off the people who held those jobs in spite of their sometimes excellent performance records. JSSM We’ve got market share and growth and profits to worry about, and anyway, power is too useful and entertaining to dribble away on relationships—we’ve got our own nests to feather. The workplace isn’t a nursery school. OJTS As all these stories illustrate, great management is a continual exercise in learning, education, and persuasion. JEMAA Management of Education Resource Centre and Capacity Development in Nigerian Universities. OJCM Without courage and tenacity, for example, no manager can hope to achieve greatness. We need to take a closer look at this second category, great managers, because although their numbers are small, they tend to loom exceptionally large in the lives of the people around them. OJCE He reduced the hierarchy to three levels, threw out the rule book (putting in its place what he called the rule of common sense), initiated collegial decision making, and began submitting certain company decisions—such as a factory relocation and several critical acquisitions—to companywide democratic votes. ALS OJA Integrity in management means being responsible, communicating clearly, keeping promises, knowing oneself. We also require them to demonstrate the qualities that define leadership, integrity, and character—things like vision, fortitude, passion, sensitivity, commitment, insight, intelligence, ethical standards, charisma, luck, courage, tenacity, even from time to time humility. Stayed in charge of production set out to nail as many corporate as. 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